Placenames

Countries
All countries are regarded as feminine. Some are preceded by the article. Where the country is not given then use the indigenous name :
Afghanistan - Afganastan Egypt - An ╚iphit Lapland - Týr nan SÓmi Sasa(i)nn - England
Africa - Afraga El Salvador - El Salbhador Latvia - An Laitbhe Saudi Arabia - ArÓibia Saudach
Alaska - Alasga Equatorial Guinea - Gini Mheadhan-chearcallach Lebanon - Leabanon Scandinavia - Lochlainn
Albania - AlbÓinia Estonia - East˛nia Lesotho - Leasoto Scotland - Alba
Algeria - Ailgeria Ethiopia - An Aeti˛p Liberia - Libeiria Senegal - Seneagal
America - Aimeireaga Europe - An Roinn E˛rpa Lithuania - LiotuÓinia Siberia - Sibeiria
Asia - An └isia Faroes, The - Na (h-Eileanan) FÓro Luxamburg - Lugsamburg Sierra Leone - Siara Leon
 Australia - AstrÓilia Finland - Su˛maidh Lybia - Libia Slovakia - Slobhaigia
Australasia - An AstralÓisia FlÓnras- Flanders Macedonia - Macad˛inia Slovenia - Sloibhýnia
Austria - An Ostair France An Fhraing Madagascar- Madagasgar Somalia - Somailia
Bahrain - BairŔin French Guyana - Guiana na Frainge Malaysia -MalÓisia South Africa - Afraga a Deas
Bangladesh - Bangladais Gambia - Gaimbia Malta - Malta South Yemen - Iemen a Deas
Belarus - Bealaruis Germany - A' Ghearmailt Mexico - Meagsago Spain - An SpÓinn
Belgium - A' Bheilg Ghana - Gana Malawi - Malamhui Sri Lanka - Sri Lanca
Bhutan - Butan Greece - A' GhrŔig Mali - Maili Suriname - Suranam
Bolivia - Boilibhia Greenland - A' Ghraonlainn Mauritania - Maratainia Swaziland - Suasalainn
Borneo - B˛irneo Guatemala - Guatamala Mongolia - Mong˛lia Sweden - An t-Suain
Botswana - Botsuana Guinea - Gini Morocco - Moroco Switzerland An Eilbheis
Brazil - Braisil Guinea Bissau - Gini Bissau Mozambique - Mosaimbig Syria - Siria
Brunei - Brunai Guyana - Guiana Nepal - NeapÓl Tansania - Tansainia
Britain - Breatainn Hispaniola - Hispainniola Newfoundland - Talamh an ╚isg Tasmania - An Tasmain
Brittany - A' Bhreatainn Bheag Holland - An Ďlaind New Zealand - Sealainn Nuadh Thailand - Tailainn
Bulgaria - BulgÓiria Hungary - An Ungair Nicaragua - Nicearagua Tunisia - Tuinisia
Cameroun - Camarun Iceland - Innis Tile Niger - NigŔir Turkey - An Tuirc
Canada - Canada India - Na h-Innseachan Nigeria - Nigeiria Ukraine, The - An UcrÓin
Cape Breton - Ceap Bhreatainn Indonesia - An Ind-innse Northern Ireland - ╚irinn a Tuath United Arab Emirates, The - Emireachdan Arabach Aonaichte
Central African Republic - Poblachd Mheadhan-Afraga Iran - Ioran Norway - Nirribhidh United Kingdom, The - An Rýoghachd Aonaichte
Chad - Siad Iraq - Iorag Nova Scotia - Alba Nuadh United States of America, The - Na StÓitean Aonaichte
Czech - An t-Seic Ireland - ╚ireann Oman - OmÓn Uruguay - Urugua
The Czech Republic - Poblachd nan Seiceach Isle of Man - Eilean Mhanainn Pakistan - PagastÓn Venezeula - Bhenesuela
Chile - An t-Sile Israel - Iosrael / Israel Panama- PanamÓ Vietnam - Bhiet-nam
China - Sýona Italy - An Eadailt Papua New Guinea - Papua Gini Nuadh Wales - A' Chuimrigh
Columbia - Coloimbia Ivory Coast - Costa ╠bhri Paraguay - Paragua Western Sahara - An Sahara Siar
Congo, The - An Congo Jamaica - Siameuga Peru - Peiri¨ Yemen - Iemen
Cornwall - A' Ch˛rn Japan - Iapan Philipines, The - Na h-Eileanan Filipineach Zaire - Saýr
Croatia - CroÓisia Java - IÓbha Poland - A' Ph˛lainn Zambia - Saimbia
Cuba - C¨ba Jordan - I˛rdan Portugal - A' Phortagail Zimbabwe - Siombabue
Cyprus - Ciopras Kashmir - Caismir Qatar - Catar  
Denmark - An Danmhairc Kenya - A' Cheinia Romainia - RomÓinia  
Ecuador - Ecuador Kuwait - Cuait Russia - An Ruis   

Both Alba and ╚ireann take the article in the genitive and both have special dative forms:
Alba, d. Albainn e.g. ann an Albainn, g. na h-Alba e.g. Banca na h-Alba
╚ireann, d. ╚irinn e.g. ann an ╚irinn, g. na h-╚ireann e.g. muinntir na h-╚ireann

A general guide to forming the nationality is to add ach/each to a consonant ending or nach to a vowel ending. With plural ending -aich/ich :
Alba >>> Albannach / Albannaich Malta >>> Maltach / Maltaich
BulgÓiria >>> BulgÓirianach /BulgÓirianaich An t-Seic >>> Seiceach / Seicich
╚ireann >>> ╚ireannach / ╚ireannaich Nirribhidh >>> Nirribheach / Nirribhich
Iapan >>> Iapanach / Iapanaich An t-Suain >>> Suaineach / Suainich

All languages are feminine and a general guide to form them is to have the endings ais/is:
ArÓibia >>> ArÓibis RomÓinia >>> RomÓinis
A' Ch˛rn >>> C˛rnais An Ruis >>> Ruisis
An ╚iphit >>> ╚iphitis Slobhaigia >>> Slobhaigis
A' Ghearmailt >>> Gearmailtis Sýona >>> Sýonais

A few languages are irregular:
Alba >>> GÓidhlig Iosrael >>> Eabhrais (Hebrew)
Afraga a-Deas >>> Afragans Na StÓitean Aonaichte >>> Beurla Aimeireaganach
Eilean Mhannain >>> Gaelg Ďlaind >>> Duitsis
╚ireann >>> Gaeilge Sasann >>> Beurla


Capital Cities
Belfast - Beul Feirst
Cardiff - Caerdydd
Dublin - Bail' └th Cliath
Edinburgh - D¨n ╚ideann
London - Lunnainn


Islands of Scotland
Arran - Arainn Harris - Na Hearradh Scalpay - Sgalpaigh
Barra - Barraigh Isle of Skye - An t-Eilean Sgiathanach Scarp - An Sgarp
Benbecula - Beinn Nam Fadhla Islay -Ile Seil - Saoil
Bernera - BeÓrnaraigh Iona - Eilean Idhe Shetland - Sealtainn
Bute - B˛d
Isle of Bute - Eilean Bh˛id
Jura - Di¨ra Shuna - Si¨na
Canna - Canaigh Kerrera - Cearrara Staffa - Stafa
Coll - Colla Lewis - Le˛dhas
Isle of Lewis - Eilean Le˛dhais
St. Kilda - Hiort
Colonsay - Colbhasa Lismore - Liosm˛r Tanera - Tannaraigh
Cumbrae, Great - Cumradh M˛r Mull - Muile
Isle of Mull - Eilean Mhuile
Taransay - Tarasaigh
Cumbrae, Little - Cumradh Beag Muck - Eilean nam Muc Tiree - Tiriodh
Isle of Tiree - Eilean Thiridh
Eigg - Eige
Isle of Eigg - Eilean Eige
Orkney - └rcaibh Uist, North - Uibhist a Tuath
Eriskay - ╚irisgeigh Oronsay - Orasaigh Uist, South - Uibhist a Deas
Gigha - Giogha Pabbay - Pabaigh Ulva - Ulbha
Great Bernera - BeÓraigh Raasay - Ratharsaigh  
Grimsay - Griomasaigh Rum - Rum
Isle of Rum - Eilean Ruma
 


Towns of Scotland
Aberdeen - Obar Dheathain Craignure - Creag an Iubhair Helmsdale - Bun Ilidh Montrose - Monadh Rois
Aberdour - Obar Dobhair Crail - Cathair Aile Inveraray - Inbhir Aora Motherwell - Tobar na MÓthar
Aberfeldy - Obar Pheallaidh Crianlarich - A' Chrýon LÓraich Invergary - Inbhir Garadh Muir of Ord - Am BlÓr Dubh
Aberfoyle - Obar Phuill Crieff - Craoibh Invergordon - Inbhir Gh˛rdain Mull of Kintyre - Maol Chinn Týre
Achnasheen - Achadh na Sýne Culloden - Cuil Lodair Inverkeithing - Inbhir ChŔitinn Musselburgh - Baile nam Feusgan
Airdrie - └rd Ruigh Culross - Cuileann Ros Inverness - Inbhir Nis Nairn - Inbhir Narainn
Applecross - A' Chomraich Cumbernauld - Comar nan Allt Inverurie - Inbhir ┘raidh Nethertown - Am Baile Shýos
Arbroath - Obar Bhrothaig Cupar - C¨bar Fýobha Jedburgh - Deadard Newtonmore - Baile ┘r an t-SlŔibh
Ardrossan - └ird Rosain Dalkeith - Dail ChŔ John O'Groats - Taigh Iain Ghr˛t Oban - An t-Oban
Aviemore - An Aghaidh Mh˛r Dalmally - Clachan an Dýsirt Keith - Baile ChŔ Paisley - PÓislig
Ayr - Inbhir └ir Dalwhinnie - Dail Chuinnidh Kilconquar - Cill Chonchuir Perth - Peairt
Ballachulish - Bail' a' Chaolais Dingwall - Inbhir Pheotharain Killin - Cill Fhinn Peterhead - Ceann PhÓdraig
Ballater - Bealadair Dornoch - D˛rnach Kilmarnock - Cill Mhearnaig Pitlochry - Baile Chloichridh
Ballingry - Bail' a' GhÓrraidh Dounreay - D¨n Rath Kilsyth - Cill Saidhe Plockton - Am Ploc
Ballintrae - Baile na TrÓgha Drumnadrochit - Druim na Drochaid Kincardin - Cinn ChÓrdainn Portree - Port Rýgh
Balloch - Bealach Dunvegan - D¨n Bheagan Kingussie - Cinn a' Ghiuthsaich Rothesay - Baile Bh˛id
Balquhidder - Both Phuidir Dumbarton - D¨n Bhreatann Kinlochbervie - Ceann Loch Bearbhaigh Roy Bridge - Drochaid Ruaidh
Banff - Banbh Dumfries - D¨n Phris Kinlochleven - Ceann Loch Lýobhainn Sheriffmuir - Sliabh an t-Siorraim
Beauly - A' Mhanachainn Dunblane - D¨n BhlÓthain Kinross - Ceann Rois St. Andrews - Cill Rýmhinn
Berwick - Bearaig Dundee - D¨n Deagh Kintail - Cinn TÓile Stewarton - Baile nan Sti¨bhartach
Bettyhill - Am BlÓran Odhar Dunfermline - D¨n PhÓrlain Kirkcudbright - Cille Chuithbeirt Stirling - Sruighle
Blair Atholl - BlÓr Athaill Dunkeld - D¨n Chailleann Kirkwall - Baile na h-Eaglaise Stonehaven - Caladh nan Clach
Braemar - Baile a' Chaisteil Dunoon - D¨n Omhain Kyle of Lochalsh - Caol Loch Aillse Stonehouse - Taigh nan Clach
Bridge of Allan - Drochaid Alain Edinburgh - D¨n ╚ideann Kyleakin - Caol Acainn Stornoway - Ste˛rnabhagh
Bridge of Dee - Drochaid DhŔ Elgin - Eilginn Lanark - Lannraig Stranraer - An t-Sr˛n Reamhar
Bridge of Orchy - Drochaid Urchaidh Falkirk - An Eagalis Bhreac Largo - Leargach Tain - Baile Dhubhthaich
Broadford - An t-└th Leathan Forres - Farrais Largs - An Leargaidh Ghallda Tarbert - An Tairbeart
Brodick - TrÓigh a' Chaisteil Fort Augustus - Cille Chuimein Lairg - An Luirg Taynuilt - Taigh an Uillt
Brora - Br¨ra Fortrose - A' Chananaich Linlithgow - Gleann Iucha Thurso - Inbhir The˛rsa
Burghead - Am Broch Fort William - An Gearsatan Lochboisdale - Loch Baghasdail Tillicoultry - Tulaich Caoltraigh
Callander - Calasraid Fraserburgh - Baile nam Frisealach Lochcarron - Loch Carrann Tobermory - Tobar Mh˛ire
Cambuslang - Camas Long Gairloch - GeÓrrloch Lochearnhead - Ceann Loch Eire Tomintoul - Tom an t-Sabhail
Campbeltown - Ceann Loch Chill Chiarain Galasheils - An Geal └th Lochgilphead -Ceann Loch Gilp Tyndrum - Taigh an Droma
Carr Bridge - Drochaid Charra Garve - Gairbh Lochgoilhead - Ceann Loch Goill Ullapool - Ulapul
Castlebay - BÓgh a' Chaisteil Glasgow - Glaschu Lochinver - Loch an Inbhir Wick - Inbhir Uige
Charlestown - Baile TheÓrlaich Glencoe - Gleann Comhan Lochmaddy - Loch nam Madadh  
Cockenzie - C¨il Choinnich Golspie - Goillspidh Melrose - Maol Ros  
Coldstream - Am Fuar Allt Greenock - Grianaig Milngavie - Muileann Dhaibhidh  

 

dmęlelland - Faodar na leasanan seo ath-riochdachadh le aithneachadh dhan ¨ghdar
dmęlelland - These lessons may be reproduced with credit to the author